Psoriasis Foto von Start Psoriasis Foto von Start Patent US - Nucleotides for topical treatment of psoriasis, and methods for using same - Google Patenten


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This application is a continuation-in-part of U. The present invention relates to the topical treatment of psoriasis and other diseases caused by hyperproliferation of skin cells. Specifically, the invention relates to methods of treatment of psoriasis and other skin diseases with formulations containing phosphate esters of nucleoside analogs, antiproliferative nucleosides and DNA chain-terminating dideoxynucleosides.

Psoriasis is a benign disease of human skin generally characterized by plaques covered by thickened scales. The disease is caused by increased proliferation of epidermal cells of unknown cause.

In normal skin the time required for a cell to move from the basal layer to the upper granular layer is about five weeks. In psoriasis, this time is only 6 to 9 days, partially due to an increase in the number of proliferating cells and an increase in the proportion of cells which are dividing G. Epidermal hyperplasia associated with inflammation is characteristic of psoriatic skin.

Skin biopsies of affected areas show hyperkeratosis with retention of nuclear fragments, increased proliferation with defective keratinization, and chronic inflammatory infiltrates.

Goslen, in Textbook of Internal Medicine, W. With increased cell proliferation, there is increased DNA synthesis in the affected tissue which has been the basis for assays for evaluating the efficacy of anti-psoriasis agents.

There is no true animal model for psoriasis although rare primates with clinical and histopathological features of psoriasis have been reported N. Psoriasis Foto von Start, investigation of Psoriasis Foto von Start drugs has relied on experimentally-induced hyperplasia in animals or a mouse strain bearing the spontaneous mutation fsn for flaky skin J.

Another mouse model having epidermal proliferation is the essential fatty-acid deficient EFAD hairless mouse. Experimentally induced animal models also include athymic nude mice, which are immunologically defective, engrafted with diseased human skin. Current therapies consist of efforts to reduce the rapid cell proliferation and to reduce inflammation.

These therapies include use of active agents topically, systemically or both, which can be combined with irradiation. Topical treatments include use of steroid creams, and use of coal tar ointments followed by ultraviolet irradiation UV B, nm.

Topical 5-fluorouracil has been used with some success but the treatment causes severe erythema, edema, bullae formation and ulceration of the skin in treated areas and therefore is not well accepted by patients C. Antiproliferative agents, including methotrexate, 6-azauridine and triazure, have also been used systemically.

Extensive psoriasis has been treated with oral administration of 8-methoxypsoralen, a photosensitizer, followed by ultraviolet A nm irradiation or administration of retinoids, such as etretinate, followed by ultraviolet A irradiation C. Other diseases caused by hyperproliferation of skin cells include atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

The topical use of phosphate esters of antiproliferative nucleosides and dideoxynucleosides and their analogs has Psoriasis Foto von Start been reported for treating psoriasis or other diseases caused by hyperproliferation of skin cells. According to the invention there is provided a method of treatment for Psoriasis Foto von Start and other diseases caused by hyperproliferation of skin cells, comprising applying topically a composition containing as an active ingredient a nucleoside analog phosphate ester having the formula: STR1 wherein N is a nucleoside analog that has antiproliferative activity; Z is O or S or NH; and n Psoriasis Foto von Start 1, 2, or 3; or a non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

The method may also be carried out using a composition containing as an active ingredient a nucleoside analog phosphate ester having the formula: STR2 wherein N is a nucleoside or nucleoside analog that has antiproliferative activity; X is O or CH 2 or S; Z is O or S or NH; and n is 2; or a non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

According to the method of the invention, the active ingredient in the composition is in a concentration of 0. Arbeit an Psoriasis a preferred embodiment, the active ingredient in the composition is in a concentration of 0. In a Psoriasis Foto von Start preferred embodiment, the active ingredient in the composition is in a concentration of 0. Psoriasis Foto von Start to one aspect of the invention, the composition is applied to an Psoriasis Foto von Start of skin from one to ten times daily in a dosage of 0.

Alternatively, the composition is applied to an area of skin from one to ten times daily in a dosage of 0. In a preferred embodiment, the composition is applied to an area of skin from one to ten times daily in a dosage of 0. According to yet another aspect of the invention there are provided pharmaceutical compositions comprising as an active ingredient a nucleoside analog phosphate esters of the method. In preferred embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions further comprise propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol In particularly preferred embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions further comprise an ingredient for enhancing penetration of the skin during topical application.

The invention also provides antiproliferative nucleoside analogue phosphate esters used in the methods of the invention. The monophosphate, diphosphate and triphosphate esters have the general formula STR3 wherein N is an antiproliferative nucleoside Psoriasis Foto von Start Z is O, S, or NH; and n is 1, 2 or 3; or alternatively have the following formula STR4 wherein.

Contrary to expectation, these nucleoside analog phosphates can surprisingly pass through the read more membrane of hyperproliferative skin cells and reduce the rate of cell division by inhibiting various enzymatic steps in the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines, nucleotides, RNA and DNA.

The invention also provides for pharmaceutical formulations of the nucleoside analog mono- di- and triphosphates in concentrations that can be applied topically to effectively reduce the proliferation of psoriatic skin cells.

DNA chain-terminating dideoxynucleoside phosphates, when applied to the skin in a suitable topical formulation, will similarly reduce proliferation of psoriatic cells. Additional phosphate esters of nucleosides useful as anti-psoriasis agents when administered topically include those listed in Nucleotide Metabolism J. Paterson, Academic Press,at pp. Salts of these compounds can be easily prepared and such Psoriasis Foto von Start should exhibit enhanced solubility in aqueous media, i.

Typically, useful article source of these compounds include sodium, potassium, lithium, ammonium, or hydrogen salts. Any physiologicallly acceptable cation known to those skilled in the art may also be used. Moreover, such salts are usable and effective in polyethylene glycol creams and lotions which provide a favorable mucosal or cutaneous dispersion.

According to another aspect of the invention, a method Psoriasis Foto von Start provided for topical treatment of psoriasis, comprising applying a composition containing the nucleoside analog phosphate esters of the invention to the psoriatic lesions on the skin of an affected patient.

The nucleoside analog phosphate esters, dideoxynucleoside and chain-terminating nucleoside phosphate esters of the invention as previously described can be prepared for topical use by incorporation into a variety of compositions known to those Psoriasis Foto von Start the art as useful and convenient for dermatological use. The nucleoside phosphate esters are often more water soluble than the corresponding bases and accordingly an aqueous solution, water-in-oil emulsion, or an aqueous cream may be highly preferred formulations.

Water solubility of the nucleoside analog phosphate esters of the invention can be enhanced through the preparation of salts, such as sodium, potassium, lithium ammonium, or hydrogen. In a particularly preferred composition, the Psoriasis Foto von Start ingredient is prepared in a polyethylene glycol PEG vehicle. Alternatively, the active ingredients can be topically applied in a dry powder formulation, using an insoluble powder, such as starch or talc as a diluent or carrier.

The vehicle is an important component of some topical compositions, because it Behandlung von Psoriasis Kazan be selected to go here penetration, to source the duration of activity, or to meet requirement of the site of application.

Alternatively, a powdered composition can be selected for application to the intertriginous zones such as the crotch, inner elbow or between the fingers or toes. The composition can also be made up to contain various organic polymers or other compositions known to those of skill in the art to give sustained release of the active anti-psoriasis derivatives.

A multitude of appropriate topical compositions can be found in the formulary known to all pharmaceutical chemists: These compositions include for example, powders, pastes, ointments, jelly, waxes, oils, lipids, anhydrous absorption bases, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions, emulsions carbowax polyethylene glycols of a variety of molecular weightssemi-solid gels, and semi-solid mixtures containing carbowax. The concentration of active ingredient in the topical compositions of the invention can be from about 0.

The compositions can further comprise effective concentrations of other agents which help to promote penetration of the skin and healing, as described in the above-referenced formulary and are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art.

Efficacy of topical compositions containing the active nucleoside analog phosphates of the invention can be evaluated using conventional testing procedures, known to those skilled in the art.

These include use of simulated animal models e. The compositions can be applied to the psoriatic lesions of the affected skin repeatedly; for example once, twice, or several times a day, and the treatment can be extended for several days until healing is achieved.

The risk of incidence of toxicity and irritation is minimal. Nucleoside analogues consist of cytosine continue reading guanosine arabinoside, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, 5-fluorouridine, 6-azauridine and DNA chain-terminating dideoxynucleosides such as dideoxycytidine, dideoxythymidine, dideoxyguanosine, dideoxyinosine, and dideoxynucleoside analogs, as described in copending U.

Epidermal DNA Synthesis Suppression Assay. Because increased DNA synthesis is characteristic of epidermal hyperplasia in psoriatic skin, the incorporation of radioactive DNA precursors into skin tissue treated with a pharmacological agent has been used to evaluate the degree of suppression of DNA synthesis caused by Psoriasis Foto von Start pharmacological agent.

Briefly, an anti-psoriasis agent in a topical Psoriasis Foto von Start is applied to the area of an athymic mouse where psoriatic human dermis and epidermis has been engrafted using techniques well known in the art. Similarly the EFAD hairless mouse model can be used in this assay to measure the effects of anti-proliferative drugs. About 6 hours after treatment, the treated tissue is excised and placed into tissue culture medium containing 3 H-thymidine deoxyribose or 3 Psoriasis Foto von Start for pulse labeling for 0.

Polyamine Biosynthesis Inhibition Assay. This assay is based on the amount of ornithine decarboxylase ODC present in epidermal cells. ODC is the rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of polyamines which are generally elevated in hyperplasia including epidermal hyperplasia associated with psoriasis. Increased ODC activity can also be induced by stratum corneum tape stripping Lesiewicz, et al. The number of epidermal cell layers is compared to similarly examined normal and untreated psoriatic skin to determine the effect of the treatment with the anti-psoriatic pharmaceutical.

Also, the relative degree of inflammation in the tissue can be quantitated by Psoriasis Foto von Start the number of white blood cells i. Similarly, human clinical trials using skin biopsy and microscopic examination can be done using bilateral paired comparisons with small quantities of anti-psoriatic pharmaceutical agents applied to areas of the skin e.

Bilateral paired comparisons are particularly preferred to avoid the risk of a cross-over effect from a treated area into a non-treated control area. Use of the Flaky Skin Mouse. By 42 days of age, mice show epidermal hyperplasia with a multilaminated basement membrane and inflammation as measured by increased white blood cells and tortuous dermal blood vessels, all characteristic of human psoriasis.

These mice can serve as a model of human psoriasis for determining the efficacy of treatment using topically applied nucleoside phosphate.

Changes in protein expression are consistent with changes in hyperplasia associated with psoriatic skin. Two molecules useful for detecting abnormal conditions in the skin are keratin and filaggrin. Accumulation of the mouse-specific keratin, K6, in the suprabasilar epidermis is a molecular change typically associated with hyperplasia. Filaggrin is a protein in the epidermis which normally is associated with keratohyalin granules in the stratum granulosum and in transitional cells but which Psoriasis Foto von Start in upper cornified cells.

Synthesis of selected purines and purine nucleoside analogs. Specific methods of synthesizing some antiproliferative purines and purine nucleoside analogs useful as phosphate esters for the treatment of psoriasis are summarized. Additional compounds and methods of synthesis are known to those skilled in the art.

Representative procedures are disclosed in R. Kini, in The Psoriasis Foto von Start of Antitumour Agents D. Psoriasis Foto von Start, 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside can be produced directly by methylation of 6-thioinosine Fox, J. Synthesis of Nucleoside Monophosphates, Diphosphates and Triphosphates and Nucleoside Phosphate Analogues: The methods for synthesizing nucleoside monophosphates by reacting the nucleoside with phosphorus oxychloride are described in copending U.

Nucleoside diphosphates are prepared by the method of Ott, D. Psoriasis Foto von Start triphosphates are prepared by the method of Seela and Roling Nuc. Examples below present the details of some syntheses useful for preparing phosphate esters of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs. Other nucleoside phosphate analogues including nucleoside phosphorothioates, nucleoside phosphoramidates, nucleoside phosphonates and nucleoside phosphorofluoridates can be synthesized using methods well known to those skilled in the art and summarized, for example, by D.

Hutchinson The synthesis, reactions and properties of nucleoside mono- d- tri- and tetraphosphates and nucleotides with changes in the phosphoryl residue. In Chemistry of Nucleotides and Nucleosides, L. The common syntheses are summarized as follows. Early methods of synthesis reacted a protected nucleoside and tris 1-imidazolyl phosphane sulfur whereas more recent syntheses replace the latter reagent with Psoriasis Foto von Start PSCl 3.

A nucleoside phosphoranilidate can be converted into a phosphorothioate by treatment with sodium hydroxide and carbon disulfide. Syntheses of these compounds include the phosphorylation of aminonucleosides and the treatment of nucleoside azides with triesters of phosphorous acid.

Lipophilic nucleoside phosphoramidates may be particularly useful anti-psoriatic compounds because of their ability to be more readily taken up by cells where they are hydrolyzed into biologically active compounds. Nucleoside phosphonates are easily prepared from nucleoside halides by those skilled in the art using either the Arbusov or the Michaelis-Becker reactions.

Phosphonates are generally less polar than their phosphate counterparts and therefore are useful as anti-psoriatic agents because they are more readily taken up by cells when applied topically. Hutchinson, In Chemistry of Nucleotides and Nucleosides, L. Preparation of Topical Polyethylene Cream: The composition is then placed in tubes or other containers and allowed to cool to room temperature and sealed.

The effective concentration of the active ingredient in the composition may be varied from Psoriasis Foto von Start. The Psoriasis Foto von Start may also comprise other ingredients for enhancing penetration of the skin e. Topical compositions of the invention comprising an antiproliferative or anti-inflammatory nucleoside phosphate in a psoriasis-effective concentration ranging from 0.

Dosage schedules and optimal concentrations of the active nucleoside phosphate compounds may be readily determined by physicians skilled in the art of treating psoriasis.

The present invention is described below in additional detail using the following nonlimiting examples. The methods described below are applicable to all methods within the scope of the invention. Therefore, the following preferred embodiments are to be construed as merely illustrative Psoriasis Foto von Start not limiting in any way.

Mononucleotide synthesis is described in the co-pending U. Psoriasis Foto von Start eliminates the formation of inorganic polyphosphates Psoriasis Foto von Start would have to be subsequently removed from the reaction materials. Phosphorylation is allowed to proceed to completion at about 24 hours after addition of the inorganic pyrophosphate IV and then the nucleoside triphosphate product V is purified by anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose followed by conversion of Psoriasis Foto von Start product to a salt such as a sodium salt.

Because the nucleotide I and the imidazolidate III can react together to form a symmetrical pyrophosphate by-product, the anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose is carried out at a lower pH where the desired product V has less charge than the undesirable by-product, thus allowing separation of the two compounds.

One reagent used in the synthesis is Psoriasis Foto von Start pyrophosphate which is made by the following procedure. The solution is concentrated under vacuum and the residue is then dried by consecutive addition and evaporation of anhydrous pyridine followed by addition and evaporation of two ml portions of N,N-dimethylformamide DMF. The synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates is accomplished by the following method.

To a solution or suspension of the mono-oligonucleotide 0. The supernatant is treated with an equal volume of methanol and evaporated to dryness under vacuum. The appropriate fractions are evaporated under vacuum and the triethylammonium nucleoside triphosphate is dissolved in methanol to a concentration of about 0. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that other salts of the nucleoside triphosphate could be made by the appropriate precipitation reactions.

The precipitated salt is collected by centrifugation, washed with four 1-ml portion of acetone and dried Psoriasis Foto von Start vacuum over phosphorus pentoxide. Additional procedures are available for synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates including the one presented Psoriasis Foto von Start the next example.

Using the method essentially of van Boom, et al. In general, the reactions include reacting a monofunctional reagent 2,2,2-tribromoethyl phosphoromorpholinochloridate with a ribonucleoside or Psoriasis Foto von Start derivative to make phosphotriester derivatives with a 2,2,2-tribromoethyl protecting group attached to the ribonucleoside i. That is, to obtain the monophosphate ribonucleoside, HCl and ammonia are used; to obtain the diphosphate ribonucleoside, the mono tri-n-butylammonium salt of phosphoric acid is used; to obtain the Psoriasis Foto von Start ribonucleoside, Psoriasis Foto von Start tri-n-butylammonium pyrophosphate is used.

The crystalline 2,2,2-tribromoethyl phosphoromorpholinochloridate has Psoriasis Foto von Start m. The nucleoside phosphoromorpholidates are then treated with different acids and ammonia sources to yield either mono- di- or tri-phosphates.

For monophosphate, the phosphoromorpholidate is treated with 0. Alternatively, the phosphotriester derivatives III can be converted directly into the corresponding nucleoside diphosphates by treatment with Zn-dust in pyridine solution containing mono tri-n-butylammonium Psoriasis Foto von Start. That is 1 mmole of reagent III is added to a stirred solution of see more ml anhydrous pyridine containing 0.

Then the reaction mixture is centrifuged to pellet the Zn and the supernatant Psoriasis Foto von Start co-evaporated three times with 15 ml of water at each step before purification on DEAE cellulose.

The mixture is stirred for 1. The residue is purified on a 2. Yount, ATP analogs, Adv. The substitution creates a stronger bond than the P--O bond that occurs in a nucleoside phosphate molecule. The synthesis is essentially as described in Method 1 or Method 2 of Myers et al. Alternatively, using Method 2, 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine monophosphate is reacted visit web page methylenediphosphonic acid using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide DCC as the condensing agent.

According to Method 1, methylenediphosphonic acid is obtained by hydrolysis in concentrated HCl of its tetraethyl ester which is prepared by the reaction of methylene iodide with excess triethyl phosphite. This resulting solution is allowed to stand at RT with occasional shaking for 48 hr when ml of water is added while cooling in ice. The solution is extracted six times with ether ml total.

Ich habe Psoriasis Hilfe aqueous solution is adjusted to pH 2 with 1N HCl and then treated with 30 g of acid-washed charcoal Norit A and stirred for 30 min; then the charcoal is collected by filtration and washed exhaustively with water 5 Psoriasis Foto von Start total.

The concentrated eluate is applied to a 2. The final precipitate is dissolved in 15 ml of water and lyophilized to produce a powder of tetralithium 2CdATMDP.

Using Method 2, methylenediphosphonic acid After 24 hr, the reaction is completed and precipitated dicyclohexylurea is filtered off and washed with water. The filtrate and washings are adjusted to a total volume of ml with water and extracted five times with ether ml total. The solution is adjusted to pH Psoriasis Foto von Start and chromatographed on Psoriasis Foto von Start 2.

Elution from the column is carried out using a gradient created by adding successively to a mixing chamber containing ml water the Psoriasis Foto von Start solutions: The fractions containing 2CdATMDP approximately in tubes are identified using ultraviolet absorption using methods well known in the art.

The combined fractions containing 2CdATMDP are lyophilized to a volume of about ml and then treated with Psoriasis Foto von Start g of dermaleks Bewertungen für Psoriasis Ärzte charcoal Norit A and stirred for 15 min; then the charcoal is collected by filtration and washed with water ml total.

The powder is dissolved in 4 ml of water and the solution is treated with excess 1M barium acetate; the resulting precipitate is collected by centrifugation, washed water and dissolved in 0.

The solution is adjusted to pH 6. The sample is dried at RT over P 2 O 4 for 12 hr to yield dibarium 2CdATMDP hydrate. Other nucleoside analog phosphomethylenediphosphonates of the invention are prepared similarly. Mono- di- and tri-phosphate esters of antiproliferative nucleoside analogs are prepared essentially as described in Example 2. These compounds are individually formulated into topical polyethylene creams as described above containing from 0. Similar formulations containing an ingredient for enhancing penetration of the skin e.

At the completion of each time interval, one mouse is killed and the treated tissue is excised and placed into tissue culture medium containing 3 H-thymidine deoxyribose for pulse labeling for 2 hours to measure the effects of the mono- di- and Psoriasis Foto von Start esters of on skin cell proliferation.

Psoriasis Foto von Start efficacy of the mono- di- and tri-phosphate esters of anti-psoriasis compositions for Psoriasis Foto von Start suppression is determined by comparing the incorporation of radioactivity into DNA from untreated tissue with that of DNA from tissue treated with different formulations of the anti-psoriasis agent. For Psoriasis Foto von Start experimental time point, a corresponding untreated time point is assayed using skin from the ventral side of the same mouse.

As a function of time and as a function of total amount of active ingredient administered, the 3 H-incorporation into DNA corresponding to dorsal skin treated with phosphate esters of is significantly less than the 3 H-incorporation into DNA corresponding to the untreated ventral skin. The Polyamine Biosynthesis Inhibition Assay is performed by measuring the amount of ornithine decarboxylase ODC present in epidermal cells after topical administration of dideoxycytidine triphosphate to mouse skin previously treated with the phorbol ester O-tetradecanoylphorbolacetate TPA; applied to increase ODC activity.

Briefly, an athymic nude mouse or EFAD mouse is topically treated with a solution of TPA to increase the level of ODC in the epidermal tissue and mimic the elevated levels of this enzyme as generally found in hyperplasia associated with psoriasis.

Within 30 Psoriasis Foto von Start to 1 hr after TPA treatment, a cream containing dideoxycytidine triphosphate as the active ingredient along with 0. At the end of the six hours, ODC levels in the skin are determined using techniques well known in the art J. As controls, untreated skin from a nude athymic mouse is tested to determine normal levels of ODC and skin from a nude athymic mouse treated with TPA is tested to determine the level of ODC elevation following TPA administration.

As a further control, Psoriasis Foto von Start and TPA treated skin is treated in parallel with the cream formulation containing DMSO but without dideoxycytidine triphosphate. The ODC level in skin Psoriasis Foto von Start with TPA and the dideoxycytidine triphosphate containing cream is compared to that of normal skin and to that in TPA-treated skin.

The efficacy of dideoxycytidine triphosphate treatment is determined by the decrease in ODC relative to that seen in TPA-treated skin and by the level Psoriasis Foto von Start ODC relative to normal skin. After treatment with the dideoxycytidine triphosphate containing cream, the ODC levels are significantly decreased relative to ODC levels in Psoriasis Foto von Start skin that received no cream or that received cream without the dideoxycytidine triphosphate as an active ingredient.

It will be understood by those skilled in the art that similar treatment and analysis of the efficacy of treatment with other dideoxynucleoside phosphate esters can be Psoriasis Foto von Start determined. These dideoxynucleoside phosphate esters include mono- di- and tri-phosphate esters of dideoxythymidine, dideoxyguanosine, dideoxyadenosine, dideoxyinosine, and dideoxynucleoside analogs including azidodideoxythymidine AZT and dideoxydidehydrothymidine.

A skin biopsy is used to detect the anti-proliferative effect of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate when applied topically to human psoriatic skin engrafted onto an athymic mouse.

Human psoriatic skin of about mm in diameter is engrafted onto the dorsal side of an athymic mouse using well known techniques in the art.

After Psoriasis und Hefe graft has sufficiently healed, the psoriatic human skin is treated with a anti-psoriatic pharmaceutical containing as an active ingredient 5-fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate, 5-fluorouridine triphosphate or their mono- or di-phosphates.

These compounds are synthesized essentially as described in Example 1. The pharmaceutical compositions are made by including the active ingredients in a topical polyethylene cream Psoriasis Foto von Start as described earlier in the disclosure with the active ingredients at a concentration of 0.

After each 24 hour period of treatment, the treated skin is examined for gross indications of psoriasis flakiness of skin and redness of inflammation. After the 15th day, the skin is removed from Psoriasis Foto von Start mouse and biopsies are used to determine the number of epidermal cell layers and the relative degree of dilation of the capillaries within the skin by microscopic inspection using standard histological techniques.

The number of epidermal Psoriasis Foto von Start layers is compared to similarly examined normal human and untreated human psoriatic skin that has been grafted to athymic nude mice to determine the effect of the treatment with the 5-fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate containing pharmaceutical compositions. The relative degree Psoriasis Foto von Start inflammation in the tissue is quantitated by determining the number of neutrophils and monocytes in the capillaries of the dermis under appropriate staining conditions.

The relative degree Psoriasis Foto von Start dilation of the capillaries compared to untreated psoriatic skin and normal control skin is noted. The number of layers of Psoriasis Foto von Start in the epidermis, the degree of inflammation and the degree of capillary dilation is correlated to the day of treatment and the amount of active ingredient as determined from the concentration in the composition and the amount administered.

The compositions having 5-fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate, 5-fluorouridine triphosphate or Psoriasis Foto von Start mono- or di-phosphates all show significant reduction in the symptoms of psoriasis relative to untreated psoriatic Psoriasis Foto von Start. One or two drops of the cream is applied to Psoriasis Foto von Start of the psoriatic skin of about 3 cm in diameter on one of Psoriasis Foto von Start forearms at 6 hour intervals over the course of 14 days.

The other forearm remains untreated during the 14 day period. At daily intervals during the 14 day period, the skin on both arms is examined macroscopically for flakiness and inflammation and the results are recorded as above for bilateral paired comparisons. At the end of the 14 day period, a mm diameter section of dermis and epidermis is removed for biopsy and microscopic examination to determine the number of layers of cells in the epidermis, the degree of inflammation and the degree of capillary dilation in the dermis as described in Example 7 using standard histological procedures.

The macroscopic observations are supported by results of microscopic examination of skin taken from treated and untreated areas. Similarly, the mono- and di-phosphates also exhibit activity. The skin is observed grossly and microscopically at daily intervals beginning 12 hr after the first application and extending up to 15 days later. The observations are used to Psoriasis Foto von Start the degree of epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation characteristic of psoriatic skin presented using standard dermatological and histological methods.

For each observation point following treatment, the treated skin is compared to a similar portion of the same mouse that was not treated and to skin treated with just the carrier ingredients without the mono- di- or tri-phosphate ester of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine. After a few days, significant improvement in the inflammation and flakiness of the skin is observed for the portions of skin treated with compositions containing either the mono- di- or tri-phosphate ester of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine compared to untreated skin or skin treated with the composition lacking the active ingredients.

Similar reduction in psoriatic symptoms is seen using these compositions over a period of 14 days. A human volunteer having patches of psoriatic skin on the arms and legs is treated with Psoriasis Foto von Start cream composition including as an active ingredient 6-azauridine triphosphate, synthesized essentially as described in Example 1.

The skin on the arms and legs is examined macroscopically for flakiness and inflammation and the observations are recorded written and photographed before beginning treatment with the 6-azauridine triphosphate containing cream. The other go here and leg remain untreated during the 14 day period to serve as negative controls.

At daily intervals during the 14 day period, the skin on the arms and legs is examined macroscopically for flakiness and inflammation and the results are recorded as above Psoriasis Foto von Start the bilateral paired comparisons.

At the end of the 14 day period, a mm diameter section of skin dermis and epidermis is removed for biopsy and microscopic examination to determine the number of layers of cells in the epidermis, the degree of inflammation and the degree of capillary dilation in the dermis as described in Example 7 using standard histological procedures. The macroscopic observations of the bilaterally paired areas of treated psoriatic skin and untreated psoriatic skin on the same volunteer show that treatment with the 6-azauridine triphosphate significantly decreases the symptoms of psoriasis over a 14 day period.

Similar results are obtained with the mono- and di-phosphates of 6-azauridine. Human psoriatic skin grafted onto an athymic nude mouse is used to detect the anti-proliferative effect of 2CdATMDP Psoriasis Foto von Start http://vilser-immobilien.de/psoriasis-bei-kindern-pro-jahr.php topically.

Macroscopic observation and microscopic skin biopsy analysis is Psoriasis Foto von Start to detect efficacy of the anti-psoriatic composition. After the graft has sufficiently healed, the psoriatic human skin is treated with an anti-psoriatic pharmaceutical containing as an active ingredient the nucleoside analogue 2CdATMDP, synthesized essentially as described in Example 4.

The pharmaceutical composition includes the active ingredient in a topical polyethylene cream essentially as described earlier in the disclosure with the active ingredient at a concentration of about 0.

The treated skin is examined for Psoriasis Foto von Start indications of psoriasis e. At the 15th day and the 30th day, skin is removed from engrafted area of the mouse and standard histological Psoriasis Foto von Start is used to determine the number of epidermal cell layers and the relative degree of dilation of the capillaries within dermis of the skin.

The number of epidermal cell layers is compared to similarly examined normal human and untreated human psoriatic skin that has been grafted to athymic nude mice to determine the effect of the treatment with the pharmaceutical composition containing 2CdATMDP.

In addition to the relative Psoriasis Foto von Start of dilation of the capillaries, inflammation in the tissue is quantitated by determining the number of neutrophils and monocytes in the capillaries of the dermis compared to untreated psoriatic skin and normal control skin. The number of layers of cells in the epidermis, the here of inflammation and the degree of capillary dilation is correlated to the day of treatment Psoriasis Anamnese the amount of active ingredient determined from the concentration in the composition and the amount administered.

After the entire treatment period, a please click for source decrease in inflammation click the following article flakiness is observed in the treated grafted psoriatic skin compared to untreated control psoriatic skin grafted to an athymic nude mouse.

The condition of the treated psoriatic skin compared to control areas of the other forearm untreated skin or skin treated with the cream formulation lacking the active ingredientis observed daily and a Psoriasis Foto von Start of skin of about mm in diameter is taken at day 15 and day 30 for standard histological analysis as described above for the mouse model.

After the 30th day, a significant change in both inflammation and visit web page is observed in the skin treated with the composition containing the active ingredient compared to control patches of skin from the other forearm. The lotion is applied to affected areas of the skin Psoriasis Foto von Start will up to 12 times per day in portions of about cc. After weeks of treatment, the itchiness and inflammation of the skin with dermatitis is significantly decreased relative to when the patient presented.

Furthermore, after treatment, the eczema lesions on the treated skin are healing or have are Lorbeerblatt Rezepte für Psoriasis voor. Thereafter, the lotion is applied at will only when itchiness recurs. The mono- di- or tri-phosphate Psoriasis Foto von Start of dideoxycytidine are synthesized essentially as described in Example 2.

Each phosphate ester of dideoxycytidine is formulated into a polyethylene glycol-based cream composition at a concentration of 0. Human volunteers having chronic lichen planus characterized by inflammation and Psoriasis Foto von Start cutaneous eruptions of papules on their arms and legs are divided into three groups Psoriasis Foto von Start each group is treated with one of the compositions: Each group is treated using the cream on only one leg or one arm, leaving the other leg or arm untreated as a bilateral control for comparision to the treated skin.

The cream is applied in about 1 cc volumes at about 6 hour intervals for a period of 7 days to 3 months. The treated and untreated areas are visually examined Psoriasis Foto von Start for the two weeks and thereafter at least weekly or as needed determined by the treating physician.

At the time when, in the treated area, inflammation appears to be diminished and the number of pruritic cutaneous eruptions appears to have decreased, a biopsy of skin about mm is taken from the volunteer from both the treated limb and the untreated limb in the affected area for histological examination for both inflammation e.

For each of the three groups, some members of the group show significant improvement in the inflammation and pruritic cutaneous eruptions of papules of lichen planus on the skin of their treated arm or leg compared to the skin on the corresponding untreated limb.

It will be understood by those skilled in the art that similar phosphate esters of other nucleoside phosphate analogs of the invention and dideoxy compounds including dideoxythymidine, dideoxyguanosine, dideoxyadenosine, dideoxyinosine, and dideoxynucleoside analogs including AZT and d4T could similarly be used in pharmaceutical compositions.

Acyclovir triphosphate is synthesized essentially as described in Example 1 and a cream composition containing 0. A group of middle-aged human volunteers with patches of actinic keratosis on skin that is exposed to the sun e. The groups treated with the cream compositions with or without Psoriasis Foto von Start triphosphate apply the cream twice per day morning and evening in volumes sufficient to cover the affected area about 0.

The treated skin of each group is visually examined every other day by the clinician and the observations recorded written and photographed. Following treatment, the volunteers Psoriasis Foto von Start examined every 6 months for recurrence of actinic keratosis in the treated areas.

For the group treated with the cream containing acyclovir triphosphate a significant number of patients show decreased keratotic growth and diminished reddening of the affected area at Psoriasis Foto von Start end of 1 month of treatment. Treatment can be continued as determined by the clinician based on the 6-monthly checkups. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that mono- and di-phosphates of acyclovir could also be used in similar pharmaceutical formulations, and that Psoriasis Foto von Start, di- and tri-phosphates of gancyclovir or the other antiproliferative nucleoside analogs of the invention Psoriasis Foto von Start also be used Psoriasis Foto von Start compositions having anti-proliferative activity for diseases of the skin associated with hyperproliferation.

For the group Psoriasis Spiritualität with the cream composition without acyclovir Psoriasis Foto von Start, no change in the actinic keratosis is observed after 1 month and the affected area is then removed using clinically acceptable methods. For the group treated by freezing the keratotic area with liquid nitrogen, all show death of the cells in the treated area within 24 hours followed by sloughing of the dead cells and associated pain during healing.

In some cases, scarring is seen in the treated area. Although the present invention has been described in the context of particular examples and preferred embodiments, it will be understood that the invention is not limited to such embodiments. Instead, the scope of the present invention shall be measured by the claims that follow. All modifications Psoriasis Foto von Start come within the meaning and range of the lawful equivalency of the claims are to be embraced within their scope.

Psoriasis Foto von Start privacyherinnering van Google Nu bekijken Ik lees dit later. Typical treatment of Psoriasis Foto von Start and other diseases of skin cell hyperproliferation using pharmaceutical compositions containing mono- di, and tri-phosphate esters of antiproliferative nucleoside analogs and related analogs, DNA chain-terminating dideoxynucleosides and other nucleoside analogs.

Geavanceerd zoeken naar patenten. Try the new Google Patents, with machine-classified Google Scholar results, and Japanese and South Korean patents. Nucleotides for topical treatment Psoriasis Foto von Start psoriasis, and methods for using same US A.

The useful phosphate esters include phosphoramidates and phosphothiorates, as well as polyphosphates having C and S bridging atoms. A method for treating a mammal with a disease characterized by hyperproliferation of skin cells comprising topically applying an effective Psoriasis Foto von Start of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine monophosphate ester or pharmaceutically acceptable salt to the affected area of skin. A method for treating a mammal having psoriasis comprising topically applying an effective mount of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine monophosphate ester or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to the affected area of skin.

A method according to claim 1 or 2 wherein said 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine monophosphate ester or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is applied in a concentration of from about 0. A method for treating a mammal with a disease characterized by hyperproliferation of skin cells comprising topically applying an effective amount Psoriasis Foto von Start a 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine phosphate ester or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to the affected area of skin.

A method Psoriasis Foto von Start treating Psoriasis Foto von Start mammal Psoriasis Foto von Start psoriasis comprising topically applying an effective mount of a 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine phosphate ester or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to the affected area of skin. A method according to claim 7 or 8 comprising topically applying an effective amount of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine diphosphate or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to the affected area of skin.

A method according to claim 7 or 8 comprising topically applying an effective amount of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine triphosphate or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to the affected area of skin. A method according to Psoriasis Foto von Start one of claims 1, 4, 7 or 10, wherein the treated hyperproliferative skin disease is selected from the group consisting of atopic dermatitis, lichen click the following article, actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, and http://vilser-immobilien.de/wir-behandeln-psoriasis-innen.php cell carcinoma.

A method according to any one of claims 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12, wherein the affected individual is a human being. A pharmaceutical formulation comprising an effective antiproliferative Psoriasis Foto von Start of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine monophosphate ester or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in a carrier suitable for topical use. Psoriasis Foto von Start pharmaceutical formulation comprising an effective antipsoriasis amount of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine monophosphate ester or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in a carrier suitable for topical use.

The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 17 or 18 wherein the concentration of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine monophosphate ester or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is from about 0. A pharmaceutical formulation according to claim 17 or 18 wherein said carrier comprises an aqueous cream.

A pharmaceutical formulation according to claim 17 or 18 further comprising would wie man Salbe für Psoriasis zu Hause bin glycol, polyethylene glycol or polyethylene glycol A pharmaceutical formulation according to claim 17 or 18 further comprising an ingredient for enhancing penetration of the skin during topical use.

A pharmaceutical formulation according to claim 25 or 26 wherein said carrier comprises an aqueous cream. A pharmaceutical formulation according to claim 25 or 26 further comprising propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol or polyethylene glycol A pharmaceutical formulation according to claim 25 or Psoriasis Foto von Start further comprising an ingredient for enhancing penetration of the skin during topical use.

A pharmaceutical formulation comprising an effective antiproliferative amount of a 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine phosphate ester or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in a carrier suitable for topical use. A pharmaceutical formulation according to claim 33 comprising Psoriasis Foto von Start effective Psoriasis Foto von Start amount of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine diphosphate or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in a carrier suitable for topical use.

A pharmaceutical formulation according to claim 33 comprising an effective antiproliferative amount of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine triphosphate or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in a carrier suitable for topical use. A pharmaceutical formulation according to claim 33 wherein the concentration of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine phosphate ester or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is from about 0.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the topical treatment of psoriasis and other diseases caused by hyperproliferation of skin cells. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Psoriasis is a benign disease of human skin generally characterized by plaques covered by Psoriasis Foto von Start scales.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to the invention there is provided a method Psoriasis Foto von Start treatment for psoriasis and other diseases caused by hyperproliferation of skin cells, comprising applying topically a composition containing as an active ingredient a nucleoside analog phosphate ester having the formula: The monophosphate, diphosphate and triphosphate esters have the general formula STR3 wherein N is an antiproliferative nucleoside analog; Z is O, S, or NH; and n is 1, 2 or 3; or alternatively have the following formula STR4 wherein N Psoriasis Foto von Start an antiproliferative nucleoside analog; Z is O, S or NH; X is O, CH 2 or S; and and n is 1 or 2.

Topical Compositions According to another aspect of the invention, a method is provided for topical treatment of psoriasis, comprising applying a composition containing the nucleoside analog phosphate esters of the invention Psoriasis Foto von Start the psoriatic lesions on the skin of an affected patient.

Assays for Topical Drug Evaluation 1. STR5 Mononucleotide synthesis is described in the http://vilser-immobilien.de/psoriasis-und-lichenie.php U. EXAMPLE 2 SYNTHESIS OF NUCLEOSIDE MONO- DI- AND TRI-PHOSPHATES USING 2,2,2-TRIBROMOETHYL PHOSPHOROMORPHOLINOCHLORIDATE Using the method essentially of van Boom, et al. The general reactions are diagrammed as follows: EXAMPLE 5 APPLICATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTERS HAVING AN ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE EFFECT USING THE EFAD MOUSE MODEL Mono- di- and tri-phosphate esters of antiproliferative nucleoside analogs are prepared essentially as described in Example 2.

EXAMPLE 6 APPLICATION OF DIDEOXYCYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE INHIBITS POLYAMINE BIOSYNTHESIS IN A MOUSE MODEL The Polyamine Biosynthesis Inhibition Assay is performed by measuring the amount of ornithine decarboxylase ODC present in epidermal cells after topical administration of dideoxycytidine triphosphate Psoriasis Foto von Start mouse skin previously treated with the phorbol ester O-tetradecanoylphorbolacetate TPA; applied to increase ODC activity.

EXAMPLE 7 APPLICATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTERS OF 5-FLUORODEOXYURIDINE AND 5-FLUOROURIDINE HAVING AN ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE EFFECT USING A MOUSE ENGRAFTED WITH PSORIATIC HUMAN SKIN A skin biopsy is used to detect the anti-proliferative effect of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate when applied topically to human psoriatic skin engrafted onto an athymic mouse.

EXAMPLE 10 APPLICATION OF 6-AZAURIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE HAVING AN ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE EFFECT ON PSORIATIC HUMAN SKIN A human volunteer having patches of psoriatic skin on the arms and legs is treated with a cream composition including as an active ingredient 6-azauridine triphosphate, synthesized essentially as described in Example 1.

EXAMPLE 11 TREATMENT OF HUMAN PSORIATIC SKIN USING 2-CHLORODEOXYADENOSINEPHOSPHOMETHYLENE DIPHOSPHONATE 2CdATMDP Human psoriatic skin grafted onto an athymic nude http://vilser-immobilien.de/asd-fraktion-2-gegen-schuppenflechte.php is used to detect the anti-proliferative effect of 2CdATMDP when applied topically. EXAMPLE 13 TREATMENT OF LICHEN PLANUS DISEASE WITH DIDEOXY NUCLEOSIDE PHOSPHATES The mono- di- or tri-phosphate esters of dideoxycytidine are synthesized essentially as described in Example 2.

EXAMPLE 14 TREATMENT OF ACTINIC KERATOSIS WITH ACYCLOVIR PHOSPHATES Acyclovir triphosphate is synthesized essentially as described in Example 1 and a cream composition containing 0. Verwijzingen naar dit patent. Year of fee payment: CAA1CNAEPA1WOA1. BiBTeXEndNoteRefMan. Patentcitaties 37Niet-patentcitaties 88Verwijzingen naar dit patentClassificaties 54Juridische gebeurtenissen 4.

USPTOUSPTO-toewijzingEspacenet. Methods and compositions for treating viral infections and guanine acyclic nucleosides. Process for treating proliferative skin diseases using see more diamino compounds. Nucleoside derivatives and an antileukemial agent containing the same as an active ingredient.

Pharmazeutische zusammensetzung zur linderung von hautproliferationserkrankungen. Lipid derivatives of antiviral nucleosides, liposomal incorporation and method of use. In Textbook of Internal Medicine, W.

Chan, E, et al. Antimicrobial Agents visit web page Chemotherapy 33 3: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 51 2: Chemistry and Industry pp. King History, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacology of acyclover. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 6: Models Psoriasis Foto von Start Dermatology 2: Drug Development Research A history of Psoriasis Foto von Start Cream.

American Perfumer and Cosmetics The total synthesis of Coenzyme A 2. The total Psoriasis Foto von Start of Coenzyme A2. Remington s Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15th Edition. Purines and purine nucleoside analogues as antitumor agents. Nucleic Acids Research 20 1: Sexually Transmitted Diseases 16 2: Acta Psoriasis Foto von Start Scandinavica B Plenum Press, New York pp. Selective phosphorylation of unprotected nucleosides.

Wiley, New York, Methods and compositions for modulation and inhibition of telomerase in vitro. Method of orally treating inflammatory skin conditions with prodrugs of 5-fluorouracil. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitory phosphonate compounds. Methods of using [3. Pharmacologically active agents containing esterified phosphonates and methods for use thereof. Marine actinomycete taxon for drug http://vilser-immobilien.de/psoriasis-creme-nano.php fermentation product discovery.

Tape stripping methods for analysis of skin disease and pathological skin state. Bone targeted therapeutics and methods of making and using the same.

Vitamin B6 derivatives of nucleotides, acyclonucleotides and acyclonucleoside phosphonates. Mixture and beverage made Psoriasis Foto von Start for protecting cellular hydration. Bone Targeted Therapeutics and Methods of Making and Using the Same.

Antimutagenic compositions for treatment and prevention of photodamage to skin. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulators, syntheses of said modulators and methods of using said modulators. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulators; syntheses of such modulators and methods of using such modulators. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-a modulators; syntheses of such modulators and methods of using such modulators.


Psoriasis Foto von Start

Normal skin cells mature and replace dead skin every 28 to 30 days. In psoriasis, the immune system triggers the immune system to make T cells, a type of white blood cell, that cause skin cells to mature in two to three days. Because the body cannot shed old skin as rapidly as the new cells appear, raised patches click dead skin form on the body.

Psoriasis is considered mild if it affects less than 5 percent of the surface of the body; moderate, if Psoriasis Foto von Start to 30 percent of the skin is involved, and severe, if the disease affects more than 30 percent of the body surface.

There click no cure for psoriasis. The disease is managed through treatment. Children also experience low self-esteem and depression because of the disfiguring aspects of the disease. Dermatologists distinguish different forms of psoriasis according Psoriasis auf der zu schmieren what part of the body is affected, how severe symptoms are, how Psoriasis Foto von Start they last, and the pattern formed by the scales.

Though children usually have only one form of the disease, some do experience two more types of psoriasis throughout their lifetimes. PLAQUE PSORIASIS Plaque psoriasis psoriasis vulgaristhe most common form of the disease, is characterized by small, red bumps that enlarge, become inflamed, and form scales. The top scales flake off easily and often, but those beneath the surface of the skin clump together.

Removing these scales exposes tender skin, which bleeds and causes the plaques inflamed patches of skin to grow. Plaque psoriasis can develop on any http://vilser-immobilien.de/kinder-psoriasis-medikamente.php of the body, but most often occurs on the elbows, knees, scalp, and trunk.

Patches of psoriasis are found in the scalp for nearly half of all psoriasis sufferers. GUTTATE PSORIASIS Named for the Latin word guttaIch Psoriasis heilen means "a drop," guttate psoriasis is characterized by small, red, drop-like Psoriasis Foto von Start that read more rapidly and may be somewhat scaly.

Often found on the arms, legs, trunk, scalp, and sometimes in the Psoriasis Foto von Start area, guttate psoriasis can clear up without treatment or disappear and resurface in the form of Psoriasis Foto von Start psoriasis. Guttate psoriasis is the most common form of psoriasis in children. It usually first appears Psoriasis Foto von Start children around four or five years Psoriasis kaufen UV-Lampen für after a streptococcal infection.

It is characterized by blister-like lesions filled with non-infectious pus and surrounded by reddened skin. Pustular psoriasis, which can be limited to one part of the body or can be widespread, may be the first symptom of psoriasis or develop in a patient with chronic plaque psoriasis. Generalized pustular psoriasis is also Psoriasis Foto von Start as Von Zumbusch pustular psoriasis.

Widespread, acutely painful patches of inflamed skin develop suddenly. Pustules appear within a few hours, Psoriasis Foto von Start dry, and peel within two days. It can make life-threatening demands on the heart and kidneys. INVERSE PSORIASIS Inverse psoriasis occurs in the armpits and groin, under the breasts, and in other areas where skin flexes or folds. This disease is characterized by smooth, inflamed lesions and can be debilitating.

This particularly inflammatory Psoriasis Foto von Start of psoriasis can be the first sign of the disease but often develops in patients with a history of plaque psoriasis. PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS About 10 percent of patients with psoriasis develop a complication called psoriatic arthritis. This type of arthritis can be slow to develop and mild, or it can develop rapidly.

Symptoms of psoriatic arthritis include:. Children who have psoriatic arthritis nard mit Hautgeschwüren have nail deformations, usually pitting of the fingernails or toenails. Size, shape, and depth of the marks vary, and affected nails may thicken, yellow, or crumble.

The skin around an affected nail is sometimes inflamed, and the nail may peel away from the nail bed. Although the disease can develop at any time, a third of all Psoriasis Foto von Start occur in childhood visit web page 10 to 15 percent of them being diagnosed in children under ten. It appears between the ages of 15 and It is rare in infants but does occur.

Psoriasis affects people of all ethnicities, but fair-skinned individuals have a slightly higher incidence. Of them, 75 percent report that their disease has a serious impact on their daily lives. One-third report sleeping problems, disruptions with their normal routine, and negative self-image because of the disease.

Annually, three hundred and fifty people die annually from psoriasis or complications of treatment. Nearly one million people in the United States have psoriatic arthritis. Though psoriatic arthritis usually develops between the age of 30 and 50, it does occur in children.

About 10 to 30 percent of psoriasis patients have psoriatic arthritis, but the condition can occur before the characteristic scaly lesions occur. If both parents have psoriasis, the risk is doubled.

Patients with psoriasis make 2. The cause of psoriasis is, as ofunknown, but research suggests that it is genetic and is related to the immune-system.

Certain Group Tyanshi behandeln Psoriasis went, however, do seem to trigger bouts of the disease.

Injury to the skin seems to precipitate many episodes of plaque psoriasis, usually within seven to ten days. This is called the Koebner reaction. Streptococcal infections are associated with guttate psoriasis and some plaque psoriasis cases. Both trauma and certain bacteria may also trigger psoriatic arthritis. Environmental factors are also implicated in reoccurrence Psoriasis Foto von Start psoriasis.

Exposure to cold temperatures can Psoriasis Foto von Start episodes of the disease. Though sunlight is usually beneficial to most patients, for a few children, too much sun can cause a flare up or worsen the condition.

Some drugs have been found to aggravate psoriasis. Antimalarial drugs, beta-blockers used to treat high blood pressure, and lithium, a drug used to treat depression and bi-polar disorder, can make episodes worse in some individuals. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory NSAID drugs, such as ibuprofen or naproxen used to manage pain and inflammation can also aggravate psoriasis.

During pubertyadolescents report more frequent flare ups and more severe ones. The hormonal changes within their bodies seem to trigger the immune system. Because stress pumps large amounts of adrenalin, a hormone, into the body, the immune system von Psoriasis alte Behandlung overstimulated and reacts by triggering flare ups of the disease. The most common symptoms of psoriasis are skin rashes or red patches covered with white scales that may itch or burn.

In plaque psoriasis, the skin may crack and bleed and is susceptible to infection. When the scales are removed, the skin underneath is deep red and shiny and may bleed. Psoriasis on the scalp is distinguished from seborrheic dermatitisor dandruff, because the scales of psoriasis are dry, not greasy. There may be a red http://vilser-immobilien.de/behandlung-von-psoriasis-in-den-fruehen-stadien.php rash guttate psoriasis or patches of scaly skin that crack and ooze pus pustular psoriasis.

In more info children, the scaly patches in plaque psoriasis do not appear as thick or as scaly as those of adults. Psoriasis appears Psoriasis Foto von Start in the diaper area and affects the face more in children than adolescents or adults. Many children routinely see their doctors to supervise their regime of treatment for psoriasis flare ups. Others only see their doctors at the click sign of a recurrence of the disease.

There are circumstances, however, when the doctor should be notified. If a treatment does not seem to be working, episodes worsen with treatment, or the child experiences a serious side effect to medications give, the doctor should be consulted to discuss alternative treatment. If there are signs of infections, such as red streaks on the skin or pus, or if there is fever or increased pain, the doctor should be called immediately.

A complete medical history and examination of the skin, nails, and scalp are the basis for a diagnosis of psoriasis. In some cases, a microscopic examination of skin cells is also performed. Blood tests can distinguish psoriatic arthritis from other types of arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis, in particular, is diagnosed by the presence of a particular antibody present in the blood. That antibody is not present in the blood of patients with psoriatic arthritis.

Age, general health, lifestyle, and the severity and location of symptoms influence the type of treatment used to reduce inflammation and decrease the rate at which new skin cells are produced.

Because the course of this disease varies with each individual, doctors must experiment with or combine different treatments to find the most effective therapy for click to see more particular patient. Psoriasis Foto von Start children with this disease with drugs is problematic. Though treatment regimes have been developed that are effective on adults, research has not been conducted sufficiently on children, except in the area of psoriatic arthritis.

Treatment in children is usually not aggressive because of their small, developing bodies. Long-term use can produce toxicity so potent drugs, Psoriasis Foto von Start as methotrexate MTX and cyclosporine, are not used with children.

Although MTX is sometimes used in extreme cases for brief amounts of time. Topical steriods are also not used on children because their bodies can absorb the steriods in the medication. Typically, steroid creams and ointments are commonly used to treat mild or moderate psoriasis in adults.

These topical ointments are not generally used with children for mild psoriasis. However, new creams that are used in treating eczema appear to be effective in treating psoriasis as well and do not appear to have long-term problems. In addition, tazarotene Tazoraca drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration FDA inis proving to be effective for mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis.

This water-based gel has chemical properties similar to vitamin A. Brief daily doses of natural sunlight can significantly relieve most symptoms. Sunburnhowever, has the opposite effect. Moisturizers and bath oils are used to loosen scales, soften skin, Psoriasis Foto von Start eliminate the itch. Adding a cup of oatmeal to a tub of bath water is also helpful. Salicylic acid an ingredient in aspirin can be used to remove dead skin or increase the effectiveness of other therapies.

Administered under medical supervision, ultraviolet light B UVB is used http://vilser-immobilien.de/facial-psoriasis-spots.php control psoriasis that covers many areas of the body or that has not responded to topical preparations. Doctors combine UVB treatments with topical medications to treat some patients and sometimes prescribe home phototherapy, in which the parent administers the UVB treatments.

Tanning beds use ultraviolet A and produce a more intense experience. Adolescents should avoid tanning salons and should sunbathe but without tanning. Any sun exposure or UVB treatment should be coordinated with a dermatologist. Methotrexate MTXPsoriasis Foto von Start as a pill or as an injection, is sometimes used in extreme cases to alleviate symptoms of severe psoriasis or psoriatic Psoriasis Foto von Start. Patients who take MTX must be carefully monitored to prevent liver damage.

Enbrel is another drug dermatologists prescribe for children. It appears to be very safe when used for long periods of time. A new self-injected medication called efalizumab Raptiva has the potential to be Psoriasis Foto von Start for severe cases of psoriasis.

Since it is suppresses the immune Psoriasis Foto von Start, its use with children or over the long-term is cautioned because it can increase Psoriasis Foto von Start risk of infection. Psoriatic arthritis can also be treated with NSAIDs, such as acetaminophen Tylenol or aspirin. Hot compresses and warm water soaks may also provide some relief for painful joints. Photochemotherapy PUVA is a medically supervised procedure that combines medication with exposure to ultraviolet light click to treat localized or widespread psoriasis.

An individual with widespread psoriasis that has not responded to treatment may enroll in one of the day treatment programs conducted at special facilities throughout the United States. Psoriasis patients who participate in these intensive sessions are Psoriasis Foto von Start to UVA and given other treatments for six to eight hours a day for two to four link. Other helpful alternative approaches include identifying and eliminating food allergens from the diet, enhancing the function of the liver, augmenting the hydrochloric acid in the stomach, and completing a detoxification program.

Constitutional homeopathic treatment, if properly prescribed, can also help resolve psoriasis. Most cases of psoriasis can be controlled, and most people who have psoriasis can live normal lives. However, Psoriasis Foto von Start people who have psoriasis are so self-conscious and embarrassed about their appearance that they become depressed and withdrawn. Others may become check this out because of psoriatic arthritis or because their psoriasis affects their hands and feet so that they cannot walk or handle objects.

Psoriasis cannot be prevented. However, recurrences can be avoided or minimized by maintaining a healthy lifestyle by getting plenty of sleepeating a balanced diet, participating in regular exerciseand minimizing stress. Avoiding overexposure to cold temperatures, sunburn, and skin irritants, such as drying soaps and lotions, can also minimize flare-ups. Not smoking or drinking alcohol can also prevent or minimize some episodes. Children living with psoriasis often find the disease overwhelming.

It is an emotionally charged disease that can have a child feeling anger one minute and deep depression the next. Because the disfigurement of their skin, though often temporary, is sometimes quite pronounced, children will turn inward, avoiding contact with friends or relatives.

School can be particularly traumatizing due to teasing by other children. Teenagers, who already feel awkward and ugly, may feel worse during flare-ups of the Psoriasis Foto von Start. Complicating this already emotional situation is the discouragement of treatments that do not work as expected and Psoriasis Foto von Start uncertainty of finding something Psoriasis Foto von Start will work.

Parents can help their children by providing education about the psoriasis. This is the first step in managing the disease and feeling some control in their lives. Sometimes this education includes discussing the disease with the childs teachers or the parents of their friends so that these adults will understand more about the emotional state of the child.

Parents can listen to their children when they are able to talk about their feelings about the disease. Emphasizing their childrens strengths, especially when these children appear sad or depressed, and encouraging them to stay active and see their friends can help a child cope with the disease.

Sometimes, participating in a childrens psoriasis Psoriasis Foto von Start group may be helpful. In addition, sending the child to a special camp for school age children with childhood skin diseases can help Psoriasis Foto von Start learn tools for coping with the disease as well as establish a support system. Children can often feel shame as well as guilt, thinking that they have somehow brought on the disease. Coupled with anger and resentment, these powerful emotions can contribute to stress, which can trigger the recurrence of the disease.

Stress reduction techniques, such as exercise, yogaand meditation, are just click for source helpful. Каждый mg217 Salbe Schuppenflechte factors should be available to their child and offer as much tangible and emotional support they can.

However, they should not encourage the child to become too dependent on the parent or others. Parents can also help children find creative solutions to deal with teasing, camouflage their lesions, and educate their peers about the disease. One of the most important lessons parents can teach their child, who is living with psoriasis, is not to be embarrassed because of the disease. Psoriasis Foto von Start can be treated matter-of-factly as people do diabetes, another chronic disorder.

Adrenaline — Another name for epinephrine, the hormone released by the adrenal glands in response to stress. It is the principal blood-pressure raising hormone and a bronchial and intestinal smooth muscles relaxant.

Arthritis — A painful condition that involves inflammation of one or more joints. Http://vilser-immobilien.de/kaufen-salbe-fuer-psoriasis-1.php — Inflamed patches of skin present in some forms of psoriasis. T cell — A type of white blood cell that is produced in the bone marrow and matured in the Psoriasis Foto von Start gland. A Patients Guide to Treatment. The Real Way Out: A Self-Education Guide to Complete Natural Healing.

Psoriasis Connection International, American Academy of Dermatology. Meacham Road, PO BoxSchaumburg, IL American Skin Association Inc. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Retrieved June 28, from Encyclopedia.

Psoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious disease characterized by inflamed hyperproliferative lesions covered with silvery-white scabs of dead skin.

Psoriasis, which affects at least four million Americans, is slightly more common in women than in Psoriasis Foto von Start. Psoriasis is most common in fair-skinned people and relatively rare in dark-skinned individuals, although the rate among African Americans appears to be slowly rising. Normal skin cells mature and replace dead skin every 28 — 30 days.

Psoriasis causes skin cells to mature in less than a week. Plaque psoriasis psoriasis vulgaristhe most common form of the disease, is characterized by small, red bumps that enlarge, become inflamed, and form scales. Removing these scales exposes tender skin, which bleeds and causes the plaques inflamed patches to grow. At least 50 of every people who have any form of psoriasis have scalp psoriasis. This form of the disease is characterized by scale-capped plaques on the surface of the skull.

The first sign of nail psoriasis is usually go here of the fingernails or toenails. Named for the Latin word gutta, which means "a drop," guttate psoriasis is characterized by small, red, Psoriasis Foto von Start dots that enlarge rapidly and may be somewhat scaly.

Often found on the arms, legs, and trunk and sometimes in the scalp, guttate psoriasis can clear up without treatment or disappear and resurface in the form learn more here plaque psoriasis. Pustular psoriasis usually occurs in adults. Pustular psoriasis, which can be limited to one part of the body localized or can be widespread, psoriasis Psoriasis Essig noticed be the first Psoriasis Foto von Start of psoriasis or develop in a patient with chronic plaque psoriasis.

Psoriasis Foto von Start appear within a few hours, then dry and peel within two days. Palomar-plantar pustulosis PPP generally appears between the ages of 20 and PPP causes large pustules to form at the base of the thumb or on the sides of the heel. In time, the pustules turn brown and peel. The disease usually becomes much less active for a while after peeling.

Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau is a form of PPP characterized by painful, often disabling, lesions on the fingertips or the tips of the toes.

The nails may become deformed, and the disease can damage bone in the affected area. Inverse psoriasis occurs in the armpits and groin, under the breasts, and in other areas where skin flexes or folds. This particularly inflammatory form of article source can be the first sign of the disease, but often develops in patients with a history of plaque psoriasis.

As of lateaccumulated evidence indicates that psoriasis is a multifactorial disorder, which means that it is the end result of a number of different factors. It appears to be caused by the combined action of multiple disease genes in a single individual that are triggered by irritants in the environment.

Factors that increase the risk of developing psoriasis include:. A medical history and physical examination is the basis for a diagnosis of psoriasis. Other helpful alternative approaches include identifying and Psoriasis Foto von Start food allergens from the diet; enhancing liver function; augmenting Psoriasis Foto von Start supply of hydrochloric acid in the stomach; and completing a detoxification program. Constitutional homeopathic treatment, if properly prescribed, can sometimes help resolve psoriasis.

Steroid creams and ointments are commonly used to treat mild or moderate psoriasis, and steroids are sometimes injected into the Psoriasis Foto von Start of patients with a limited number of lesions. In mid, the United States Food and Drug Administration FDA approved the use of tazarotene Tazorac to treat mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis. This water-based gel has chemical properties similar to Vitamin A. Brief daily doses of natural sunlight can significantly relieve symptoms.

Often petroleum-based, coal tar-based, or other greasy ointments are used. Adding a cup of oatmeal to a tub of bath water or using Aveeno in the bath can soothe the itch. Dilute, topical salicylic acid an ingredient in aspirin can be used to remove dead skin or increase the effectiveness of other therapies.

Administered under medical supervision, ultraviolet light B UVB is used to control psoriasis that covers many areas of the body or that has not responded to other treatment. Doctors combine UVB treatments with topical medications to treat some patients and sometimes prescribe home phototherapy, in which the patient administers his own UVB treatments. Photochemotherapy PUVA is a medically super-vised procedure that combines medication with exposure to ultraviolet light UVA to treat localized or widespread psoriasis.

An individual with wide-spread psoriasis that has not responded to treatment may enroll in one of the day treatment programs conducted at special facilities throughout the United States. Psoriasis patients who participate in these intensive sessions are exposed to UVB and given other treatments for six to eight hours a day for two to four learn more here. A newer form of treatment that has several advantages over standard phototherapy is therapy with an excimer laser system.

Laser treatment for psoriasis uses a carefully focused beam of ultraviolet light http://vilser-immobilien.de/es-ist-unmoeglich-psoriasis.php not only relieves symptoms quickly but also minimizes exposure of healthy skin to the ultraviolet rays.

Methotrexate MTX can be given as a pill or as an injection to alleviate symptoms of severe psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis. Patients who take MTX must be carefully monitored by a doctor who checks blood liver enzymes to prevent liver damage.

Psoriatic arthritis can also Psoriasis Salz vom Meer treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Psoriasis Foto von Startlike acetaminophen Tylenol or aspirin. Other medications used to treat severe psoriasis include etrentinate Tegison and isotretinoin Accutanewhose chemical properties are similar to those of Vitamin A. Most effective in treating pustular or erythrodermic psoriasis, Tegison also relieves some symptoms of plaque psoriasis.

Tegison can enhance the effectiveness of UVB or PUVA treatments and reduce the amount of exposure necessary. Accutane is a less effective psoriasis treatment than Tegison, but can cause many of the same side effects, including nosebleedsinflammation of the eyes and lips, bone spurs, hair lossand birth defects.

Tegison is stored in the body for an unknown length of time, and should not be taken by a woman who is pregnant or planning to become pregnant. A woman should use reliable birth control while taking Accutane and for at least one month before and after her course of treatment.

Cyclosporin emulsion Neoral is used to treat stubborn cases of severe psoriasis. Cyclosporin is also used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, and Neoral, approved by the FDA inshould be particularly beneficial to psoriasis patients who are young children or African Americans, or those who have diabetes.

The drawback to use of cyclosporin, however, is that it has been implicated in an increased Psoriasis Foto von Start of skin cancer for psoriasis patients. Researchers in Boston reported toward the end of that psoriasis patients who had been given cyclosporin as part of their treatment developed three times as many squamous cell cancers as those who had not.

Patients who had taken cyclosporin for longer than three months were four times as likely to develop skin cancers. The new drug click at this page only relieves the symptoms of psoriasis more rapidly inverse Psoriasis-Behandlung current treatments, but patients also remain symptom-free longer.

Most cases of psoriasis can be managed. The Social Security Administration grants disability benefits Psoriasis Foto von Start about psoriasis patients each year.

The Complete Guide to Alternative and Conventional Treatments. Nair, Tilo Henseler, et al. BoxSchaumburg, IL American Skin Association, Inc. Psoriasis is most common in fair-skinned people and extremely rare in dark-skinned individuals.

Normal skin cells mature and replace dead skin every days. Named for the Latin Psoriasis Foto von Start guttawhich means "a drop," guttate psoriasis is characterized by small, red, drop-like dots that enlarge rapidly and may be somewhat scaly. Sunburn has the opposite effect. Moisturizers and bath oils can loosen scales, soften skin, and may eliminate the itch.

So can adding a cup of oatmeal to a tub of bath water. Doctors combine UVB treatments with topical medications to treat some patients and sometimes prescribe home phototherapy, in which the patient administers his or her own UVB treatments. Click arthritis can also be treated with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDlike acetaminophen Kremgen Psoriasis Bewertungen or aspirin.

Other medications used to treat severe psoriasis include etrentinate Tegison and isotretinoin Accutanewhose chemical properties are similar to those of vitamin A.

Accutane is a less effective psoriasis treatment than Tegison, but can cause many of the same side effects, including nosebleeds, inflammation of the eyes and lips, bone spurs, hair loss, and birth defects. Cyclosporin is also used to Psoriasis Foto von Start rejection of transplanted organs, and Neoral, approved click the following article the FDA inshould be particularly beneficial to psoriasis patients who are young children or African-Americans, or those who have diabetes.

Other here alternative approaches include identifying and eliminating food allergens from the diet, enhancing the fuction of the liver, augmenting the hydrochloric acid in the stomach, and completing a detoxification program.

Some people who have psoriasis are so self conscious and embarrassed about their appearance that they become depressed and withdrawn. The Social Security Administration grants disability benefits to about psoriasis patients each year, and a comparable number die from complications of the disease.

Arthritis — An inflammation of joints. The exact cause is unknown, but the disease appears to be an inherited, possibly autoimmune disorder that causes the Psoriasis Foto von Start of skin cells. Psoriasis may occur at any age but is uncommon in children. The characteristic lesion is a scaly "mother-of-pearl" patch, appearing anywhere on the body.

Involvement may range from a single plaque to numerous patches that cover most of the skin. A variety of treatments are used for result keine Heilung für Psoriasis hormonellen was with mild to moderate cases. Treatments directed at the symptoms include the application of ointments and exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet UVB light.

Retinoids help stabilize follicular epithelial cells. Vitamin D analogs and metabolites, although effective in treatment, have side effects. Photochemotherapy psoralen combined with UVA radiation is also effective, but increases the risk Psoriasis Foto von Start skin cancer.

Alfacept and other drugs that interfere with T-cell see immunity activation, and etanercept, infliximab, and other drugs that block tumor-necrosis Psoriasis Foto von Start are effective in many patients with moderate to severe Psoriasis Foto von Start. Psoriasis so-RY-a-sis is a long-lasting skin disease that causes patches of skin to become red, thickened, and covered with silvery-looking flakes.

When the American writer John Updike wrote a book about his own life, titled Self-Consciousness, he spent a whole chapter describing his personal battle with a long-lasting skin disease known as psoriasis. Two out Psoriasis Foto von Start every people in the United States have psoriasis. In some cases, the disease is Psoriasis Foto von Start mild to notice. In other cases, it is severe enough to cover much of the Psoriasis Foto von Start. The cause of psoriasis is still unknown.

Scientists do know that the disease cannot be passed from one person to another. In other words, it is not possible to catch psoriasis from someone else Psoriasis Foto von Start has it. The immune system includes a type of white blood cell called a T cell. Researchers now think that people with psoriasis may have a problem with the immune system that causes it to make too many T cells in the skin. People with Psoriasis Foto von Start often notice that there are times when their skin gets worse, then gets better.

The bad times, known as flare-ups, may be triggered by such things as climate changes, infections, stress, dry skin, and certain medicines. Flare-ups may also occur after the skin has been cut, scratched, rubbed, or sunburned. People whose relatives have psoriasis are Psoriasis Foto von Start likely to also have it. Scientists are now studying families with psoriasis to try Psoriasis Foto von Start find genes linked Psoriasis Foto von Start the disease.

Psoriasis causes patches of red, thickened skin with silvery flakes, most often on the scalp, Psoriasis Foto von Start, knees, lower back, face, inside of the hands, and bottom of the feet. These patches are sometimes known as plaques PLAKS. They may itch or burn, and the skin may crack.

The disease also can affect the fingernails, toenails, and soft areas inside the mouth and genitals. About one out of 10 people with psoriasis gets psoriatic arthritis so-ree-AT-ik ar-THRY-tisa condition that causes pain, swelling, and stiffness of the joints the places where bones meet.

A doctor usually identifies psoriasis by looking carefully at the skin, scalp, and nails. If the problem is psoriasis, the doctor can try various treatments that may clear up the skin for a time. No one treatment works for everyone, but most people can be helped by something. These http://vilser-immobilien.de/psoriasis-foto-fuesse.php some of the treatment choices:.

Many people with psoriasis find that it Psoriasis Foto von Start to keep the skin moist. Lotions, oils, and petroleum jelly Vaseline are often useful for this purpose. During the winter months, heaters can make the air inside a house quite dry, so it may help to run a humidifier hu-MID-i-fy-era machine that puts moisture back into the air.

It is also a good idea for people with psoriasis to avoid getting harsh soaps and chemicals on their skin. In addition, they should protect their skin from injury by taking such steps as not wearing article source tight clothes or shaving with a dull razor.

BoxSchaumburg, ILDERM. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. National Psoriasis Foundation, S.

A national group for people with psoriasis. The website includes a special section for children and teenagers. Research categories Research categories Earth Psoriasis Foto von Start Environment History Literature and the Arts Medicine People Philosophy and Religion Places Plants and Animals Science and Technology Social Sciences and the Law Sports and Everyday Life Additional References. Home Medicine Diseases and Conditions Pathology psoriasis. Print this article Print all entries for this topic Cite this article.

Infancy through Adolescence COPYRIGHT Thomson Gale. Description Normal skin cells mature and replace dead skin every 28 to 30 days. Types of psoriasis Dermatologists distinguish different forms of psoriasis according to what part of the body is affected, how severe symptoms are, how long they last, and the pattern formed by the scales. Learn more Psoriasis Foto von Start citation styles. Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine COPYRIGHT The Gale Group, Inc. Psoriasis Foto von Start Definition Psoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious disease characterized by inflamed hyperproliferative lesions covered with silvery-white click to see more of dead skin.

Description Psoriasis, which affects at least four million Americans, is slightly more common in women than in men. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed. COPYRIGHT Thomson Gale. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright The Columbia University Press. Complete Human Diseases and Conditions COPYRIGHT Gale Group. Psoriasis What Is Psoriasis? What Does Psoriasis Look Like? How Is Psoriasis Treated? Living with Psoriasis Resources Psoriasis so-RY-a-sis is a long-lasting skin disease that causes patches of skin to become red, thickened, and covered with silvery-looking flakes.

KEYWORD for searching the Internet and other reference sources googletag. Psoriasis is one of the commonest skin diseases in Britainbut its cause is not Psoriasis Foto von Start. It sometimes occurs in association with arthritis psoriatic arthritis.

Occasionally the disease may be very severe, affecting much of the skin and causing considerable disability in the patient. The lesions frequently appear on the chest, knees, elbows, and scalp. Treatment is with tar preparations, steroids and ultraviolet light. Psoriasis is sometimes associated with a form of arthritis.


A folk remedy for flu, cough and colds

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